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Dr Dirk Frei

Academic Qualifications

PhD in Natural Sciences (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Geochemistry, University of Göttingen, awarded 1998 (Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Jochen Hoefs)

MSc in Geology (Dipl.-Geol.), Department of Petrology, Berlin University of Technology, awarded 1994 (Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Franz)

BSc Geology (Vordiplom), Department of Petrology, Berlin University of Technology, awarded 1991 (Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Franz)

Work Experience and Academic Career

since 06/2016: Tenured Full Professor in Geochemistry, University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Head of Department of Earth Sciences.

01/2011 – 05/2016: Tenured Research Associate Professor in Geochemistry, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Head of Geochemical Laboratories.

03/2003 – 12/2010: Tenured Senior Advisor, Department of Geological Mapping, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland; Head of Geochemical Laboratories and Group Leader “Provenance Analysis in Hydrocarbon Exploration”.

03/2001 – 02/2003: Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Petrology, Berlin University of Technology, Germany.

09/1998 – 08/2000: European Union Marie Curie Research Fellow, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

03/1994 – 07/1998: Teaching and Research Assistant, Department of Geochemistry, University of Göttingen, Germany.

02/1991 – 02/1994: Teaching and Research Assistant, Berlin University of Technology, Germany.

Distinctions

1994: Marie-Curie Fellowship of the European Union

Professional Engagement

Until December 2017 I served as Associate Editor of the peer-reviewed International journal Mineralogy & Petrology, one of the oldest and most respected publications in this field of research. I frequently act as reviewer for all major journals in the field of Earth Sciences (amongst others, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Economic Research, Mineralium Deposita, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Chemical Geology, Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta, as well as Nature and Science).

Since 2009, I am a serving on the Pool of Reviewers of the European Commission, and I regularly serve as referee for the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the Swiss National Foundation (SNF), The German Science Foundation (DFG), the Danish Science Foundation (FNU) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF).

I am a member of the Geological Society of South Africa, the Geochemical Society, the Society of Economic Geologists, the Mineralogical Society of America, the American Geophysical Union and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Research Funding

The total funds that I have been able to attracted from Research Funding Agencies and partners from Industry as either Principal Investigator or Co-Investigator so far are > 5 Mio Euros, equivalent to approximately 75 Mio ZAR.

In the following, I will provide details of currently on-going projects that exemplify my research interests and approach. A more detailed description of envisaged research are given in a separate document.

Currently on-going projects:

since 2017: Testing tectono-magmatic models for the origin of kimberlites in Southern Africa using the isotopic record in perovskite (PhD project funded by CIMERA to started in 2017.)

since 2016: Geochronology and Isotopic Characterisation of LCT Pegmatites from the Orange River Pegmatite Province (MSc project Shane Doggart, funded by CIMERA. The project has started in April 2015 with the aim of a possible conversion to a PhD study, pending on satisfactory progress of the student).

since 2016: Crustal development of the concealed crystalline basement below the Karoo Supergroup in the southern sectors of the Kaapvaal Craton (MSc project Leahn, funded by the NRF. The project has started in April 2015 with the aim of a possible conversion to a PhD study, pending on satisfactory progress of the student).

since 2014: Center of Excellence for Integrated Mineral and Energy Resource Analysis (CIMERA) as Co-applicant and Founding Member.

Financed by DST-NRF. I am currently supervise 3 MSc projects and 1 PhD project that are funded by CIMERA. Annual funding (approx. 350,000 ZAR per annum) for MSc and PhD projects are secured until 2019 and are anticipated to continue until 2024.

since 2011: „Establishment of a world-class LA-ICP-MS U-Pb microgeochronological facility for the African Geoscience Community” (Purchase of a Finnigan Element2 magnetic sectorfield mass spectrometer and Resonetics S155 and SE50 Excimer laser ablation systems).“

Financed by Stellenbosch University and the SA National Research Foundation. Funds granted: 1,000,000 € (Principal Investigator).

A large number of publications in peer-reviewed international journals are already directly based on the succesful establishment of this facility (items P107 to P54 in the publication list).

since 06/2012: „Testing the consistency of interactions between Paleocene Basalts and sediments using bio- and sequence stratigraphy, well-log correlation, high resolution geochemistry, heavy mineral provenance indicators and baddeleyite U-Pb dating.“

Financed by SINDRI (Future Exploration Issues Programme of the Faroese Continental Shelf; Agip Denmark, Amerada Hess Faroes Ltd., Anadarko Faroes Co., P/F Atlantic Petroleum, BP Amoco Exploration Faroes Ltd., British Gas International, DONG Føroyar P/F, Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd., Føroyar Kolvetni P/F, Petro-Canada Faroes Ltd., Phillips Petroleum Europe Exploration Ltd., Shell UK Ltd. and Statoil Færøyene Ltd.). Funds granted: 90,000 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project will be confidential.

since 06/2011: „Geochronology of basement terranes on the Hebridean and East Greenland margins: a key to understanding sediment provenance patterns in the Faroe-Shetland Basin.“

Financed by SINDRI (Future Exploration Issues Programme of the Faroese Continental Shelf). ENI Oil Aps. Funds granted: 80,000 € (Principal Investigator together with Andrew Morton, CASP).

The results of this project have been reported to SINDRI (item R32 in the publication list) and, after the confidentiality period has ceased, are currently written up for publication in a peer-reviewed international journal.

Finished projects

2009-2011: „Heavy metall variations in shells of Mytilus edulis and Hiatella arctica as monitor for heavy metall pollution in marine “

Financed by DANCEA („Danish Coperation for for Environment in the Arctic“). Funds granted: 40,300 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project have been summarised in reports to DANCEA (item R25 in the publication list) and have been presented at international conferences. A synopsis of the results is currently in preparation for publication in a peer-reviewed international journal.

2008-2011: „Geochemical, petrological and provenance specific variations in Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in North- and Northeast: Analogues of potential reservoir rocks of the North Atlantic and Arctic.“

Financed by BP Petroleum, Cairn Petroleum, ConocoPhillips Petroleum Europe, ExxonMobile and DONG. Funds granted: 536,000 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project have been summarised in confidential reports (items R27 and R24 in the publication list).

2008-2010: „Geochronology and crustal evolution of Bornholms basement: Insights from the U-Pb and Hf isotope record of granitic zircon.” In collaboration project with Dr. Tod Waight (University of Copenhagen) and Prof. Dr. Michael Storey (University of Roskilde).

Financed by the Carlsberg-Foundation. Funds granted: 35,800 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project have been published in a peer-reviewed international journal (item P51 in the publication list).

2008-2010: „Geochemistry, provenance and stratigraphy of sub-Paleocene sandstones in the Faroe-Shetland basin.“ In collaboration project with Dr. Andrew Whitham and Dr. Andrew Morton (CASP, University of Cambridge).

Financed by Chevron Oil. Funds granted: 96,800 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project will be confidential until 2014 and have been summarised in confidential reports (items R31 and R30 in the publication list).

2008-2010: „Murzuq basin projekt – Integrated source and reservoir rock analysis in early Paleozoic petroleum systems.” In collaboration project with Dr. Andrew Whitham and Dr. Guido Meinhold (University of Goettingen).

Financed by Eni Oil Aps and Total. Funds granted: 150,000 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project have been summarised peer-reviewed international journals and in confidential reports (items P46, R29, R28, R20 and R19 in the publication list).

2007-2009: „A heavy mineral study of the Tertiary sedimentary succession of Kangerlussaq, SE Greenland.“ In collaboration project with Dr. Andrew Whitham and Dr. Andrew Morton (CASP, University of Cambridge).

Financed by Amerada Hess. Funds granted: 43,400 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project will be confidential until 2014 and have been summarised in confidential reports (items R22 and R21 in the publication list).

2007-2009: „From source to sink – benchmarking the detrital input from crystalline sources into off-shore basins using zirconology”. In collaboration with Dr. Anders Scherstén (Lund University and Prof. Minik Rosing (University of Copenhagen).

Financed by the Denish Ministry for Science and Research. Funds granted: 200,000 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals.

2005-2009 „An aquaculture field-based study of environmental and biological controls on the Mg/Ca distribution in Mytilus edulis shells”.

European Science Foundation/SNF grant 21-04-0574 CASIOPEIA – EuroClimate. Funds granted: 230,000 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals (item P17 in the publication list).

2003-2010: „Genesis and exploration potential of Titanium beach-placer deposits.“

Long-standing research project financed E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware, USA. Funds granted: ca 125,000 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals and in internal and/or confidential reports (items P27, P21, P18, P12, P11, P9, P8, R17, R4 and R2 in the publication list).

2006-2008: „Tectonic and sedimentological development of the Volta Basin.“ In collaboration with Dr. Feiko Kalsbeek, GEUS.

Financed by the Nordic Development Fund and the EU Mining Sector Support Programme. Funds granted: 45,000 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project have been reported in a peer-reviewed international journal (item P23 in the publication list).

2006-2008: „Provenance of Sediments in the Faroese Sector of the Faroer-Shetland Basin.“

Financed by SINDRI (Future Exploration Issues Programme of the Faroese Continental Shelf). ENI Oil Aps. Funds granted: 65,000 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project will be confidential until 2015 and have been summarised in confidential reports (items R18 and R16 in the publication list).

2004-2006: „Linking the Faroese Area and Greenland: An Innovative, Integrated Provenance Study.“

Financed by SINDRI (Agip Denmark, Amerada Hess Faroes Ltd., Anadarko Faroes Co., P/F Atlantic Petroleum, BP Amoco Exploration Faroes Ltd., British Gas International, DONG Føroyar P/F, Enterprise Oil Exploration Ltd., Føroyar Kolvetni P/F, Petro-Canada Faroes Ltd., Phillips Petroleum Europe Exploration Ltd., Shell UK Ltd. and Statoil Færøyene Ltd.). Funds granted: 300,000 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals and in internal and/or confidential reports (items P26, P20, P14, P9, R11, R10, R9, R8, R7 and R6 in the publication list).

2006-2007: „Provenance and stratigraphy of potential reservoir sandstones from the West Siberian Basin.“ In collaboration with Dr. Andrew Whitham and Dr. Andrew Morton (CASP, Cambridge).

Financed by British Petroleum, Chevron Oil, Eni Oil Aps, ExxonMobil, Shell Oil, Statoil and Total Oil. Funds granted: 83,000 € (Co-Investigator).

The results of this project will be confidential and have been summarised in confidential report (items R26 and R15 in the publication list).

2005: „Establishement of a world-class LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological facility for the Danish Geoscience Community” (Purchase of a Finnigan Element2 and New Wave UP 213).“

Financed by the Danish Ministry for Science and Technology. Funds granted: 400,000 € (Principal Investigator).

A large number of publications in peer-reviewed international journals are directly based on the establishment of this facility( P53, P52, P51, P49, P48, P47, P46, P45, P44, P43, P42, P41, P40, P39, P38, P37, P36, P35, P33, P32, P31, P30, P29, P28, P26, P25, P23, P22, P20, P19, P17, P15, P14 and P13 in the publication list).

2001-2003: „Experimental determination of trace element partitioning between orthopyroxene and anhydrous silicate melts.”

German Science Foundation (DFG) grant Fr 557/17-1. Funds granted: 130,000 € (Principal Investigator together with Prof. G. Franz).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals (items P34, P24, P16 and P6 in the publication list).

1999-2000: „Experimental determination of crystal-liquid partitioning of the U decay-series elements.”

European Science Foundation grant ERBFMBICT 983374. Funds granted: 120,000 € (Principal Investigator).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals (P5 and P4 in the publication list).

1994-1998: „Stable isotope geochemistry (O-, H-, C-isotopes) of minerals and rocks from the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB)“ German Science Foundation (DFG) grant Ho 375/4-11. Funds granted: 100,000 € (Principal Investigator together with Prof. J. Hoefs).

The results of this project have been reported in peer-reviewed international journals (items P3, P2 and P1 in the publication list).

Teaching Portfolio and Philosophy

I have more than 10 years of practical experience in teaching in tertiary education, more than six years at Stellenbosch University and the University of the Western Cape, the remaining years at the Technical University of Berlin, Germany, and Copenhagen University, Denmark. I currently teach at various academic levels, with two module at undergraduate BSc level (“Introduction to Geochemistry” at 2nd year level and the 2nd year Field-school), as well as two modules at postgraduate BSc Honours levels (“Applied Geochemistry” and “Economic and Exploration Geology”). My teaching load is currently at the high end of our Department.

My broad range in interests in research, covering several sub-disciplines of geosciences (mainly related to Petrology and Geochemistry), predestine me to teach courses in subjects that in larger Departments are covered by several specialist staff. The courses I teach have changed significantly during my career, depending upon the availability of staff and changes in curriculum. I cannot recall two consecutive years in which I would have taught the same courses. Currently I enjoy the luxury of teaching exclusively courses that coincide in topic with my core research interests in geochemistry applied to the evolution of the continental crust and related ore deposits.

I have always tried to approach my teaching in a holistic way by combining a plethora of different methodologies. These include building of factual knowledge, but I always try to present this factual knowledge in a hands-on training on the job approach that stimulates the student’s ability for making qualitative observations that lead to quantitative predictions. To this end I use an approach that can be broadly described as “blended learning” that combines lectures, practicals, discussion forums, webinars and videos, as well as the utilisation of analytical facilities as teaching tools. I make full use of the E-learning platform that the University of the Western Cape has set-up to stimulate students self-teaching. These comprise audio-commented lecture materials, online-quizzes and tests, as well as memos covering specific topics of interest. This allows the students to repeat and consolidate their knowledge and train their skills independent of face-to-face teaching activities.

The overall goal of my teaching activities is to foster and support the attributes that I believe every individual with an academic education should represent: graduates should have a scholarly approach towards facts and knowledge, they should be confident lifelong learners, and should display critical citizenship with a mind for the common social good. These attributes are especially important given the rapidly changing environment due to ever increasing technological advances. These attributes draw on a set of skills and abilities that are the overarching goal of an academic education, like, e.g., being inquiry-focussed and knowledgeable as well as critically and relevantly literate, being autonomous and collaborative, are skilled communicators with the confidence to engage, show interpersonal flexibility and, last but not the least, being ethically, environmentally and socially aware.

Teaching and Supervision Experience

Teaching experience:

Lectures and practicals „Introduction to Geochemistry“ (as lecturer, Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape).

Lectures and practicals „Applied Geochemistry“ (as lecturer, Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape).

Lectures and practicals „Economic and Exploration Geology“ (as lecturer, Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape).

2nd year field school (as module coordinator, Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape)

Lectures and practicals „Geochronology“ (as lecturer, Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University).

Lectures and practicals „Applied Microgeochemistry“ (as lecturer, Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University).

Lectures „The U-Pb System and Applications in Economic Geology“ (as lecturer, presented in May 2013 as lecturer in the MSc programme Economic Geology of the Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile).

Short course „U-Pb Microgeochronology in Applied Geology“ (course presented as lecturer in May 2013 for staff members of SERNAGEOMIN in Santiago, Chile).

Lectures and praticals „Introduction to Magmatic and Metamorphic Petrology“ (as lecturer, presented in collaboration with Prof. Dr. G. Franz, Department of Earth Sciences, Berlin University of Technology, 2001/2002).

Field course „Basement Rocks“(as lecturer in collaboration with Prof. Dr. G. Franz, Department of Earth Sciences, Berlin University of Technology, 2001/2002).

Short course „In-situ microgeochemistry and applications in Economic Geology“ (course presented as lecturer in August 2012 for staff members of the Department of Geology, University of Botswana, in Gaborone, Botswana).

Short course „Introduction to applied Geochronology & Isotope Geochemistry“ (course presented as lecturer in June 2007 for staff members of the Ghanaian Geological Survey in Accra, Ghana).

Lectures and praticals „Analytical Geochemistry“ (as lecturer, in collaboration with Dr. T. Waight, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2004-2010).

Lectures „Frontiers in Geosciences“ (as lecturer in collaboration with Prof. Dr. B.J. Wood, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, England, 1999).

Lectures and praticals „Stable Isotope Geochemistry“ (as lecturer, in collaboration with Prof. Dr. J. Hoefs, Department of Geochemistry, University of Göttingen, 1996, 1997).

Lectures and praticals „Sedimentary Geochemistry“ (as lecturer in collaboration with Prof. Dr. J. Hoefs and Prof. Dr. E. Usdowski, Department of Geochemistry, University of Göttingen, 1997).

Lectures and praticals „Petrographical Microscopy“ (as student demonstrator, in collaboration with Prof. Dr. G. Franz, Department of Earth Sciences, Berlin University of Technology, 1991-1993).

Lectures and praticals „Clastic Sedimentology“ (as student demonstrator, in collaboration with Prof. Dr. H. Kallenbach, Department of Earth Sciences, Berlin University of Technology, 1990 to 1992)

Field course „Mesozoic“ (as student demonstrator, in collaboration with Prof. Dr. H. Kallenbach, Department of Earth Sciences, Berlin University of Technology, 1991).

Supervision of M. Sc. und Ph. D. Students (so far 10 MSc and 11 PhD students):

since 2016: MSc student Shane Doggart. Project title: „Geochronology and isotopic characterisation of LCT pegmatites from the Orange River Pegmatite Province“ (main supervisor, in collaboration with Prof. Ian Buick, Stellenbosch University).

since 2016: MSc student Leahn Pieterse. Project title: „Crustal development of the concealed crystalline basement below the Karoo supergroup in the southwestern, southern and southeastern sectors of the Kaapvaal craton“ (main supervisor).

since 2015: PhD student Florian Huthmann. Project title: „Timing and genesis of the Waterberg Extension PGE deposit, Limpopo, South Africa“ (co-supervisor, in collaboration with Prof. Judith Kinnaird, EGRI, University of the Witwatersrand).

2015-2016: MSc student Mercy Musa. Project Title: „Thermal control of heavy mineral assemblages during burial“ (co-supervisor in collaboration with Andrew Morton and Dr. Andrew Witham, CASP, Cambridge University).

2013-2016: MSc student Tarryn-Kim Rudnick. Project title: „The origin of the Swartberg Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Northern Cape, South Africa“ (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Abraham Rozendaal, Stellenbosch University).

2011-2015: PhD student Alja Sassnowski. Thesis title: „Paleogeographic implications of heavy mineral and detrital zircon provenance of Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in the North Atlantic region” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Dr. Andy Morton, University of Aberdeen).

2011-2014: PhD student Paula Robinson. Thesis title: „A provenance study of Cenozoic palaeodeltaic sediments in California as a tool for understanding the evolution of the Colorado River“ (co-supervisor in collaboration with Dr. Andy Morton, University of Aberdeen).

2013-2014: MSc student Monica Santana. Thesis title: „Allanite chemistry as an indicator of fluid evolution and genesis of the Neoproterozoic Riviera W-Mo-REE endoskarn deposit, Western Cape, South Africa“ (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Abraham Rozendaal, Stellenbosch University).

2012-2013: Honours student Leahn Pieterse. Thesis title: „Trace element and isotope chemistry of scheelite as an indicator of hydrothermal fluid evolution of the Riviera W-Mo-REE endoskarn deposit, Western Cape, South Africa“ (main supervisor).

2010-2014: PhD student Mette Olivarius. Thesis title: „Influence of diagenetic processes on porosity and permeability of Cretaceous-Jurassic reservoir rocks in the North Atlantic“ (main supervisor in collaboration with Dr. Rikke Weibel, GEUS).

2009-2012: PhD stutend Audrey Decouy. Thesis title: „Geochemical, petrological and thermochronological records in sediments of the Peruvian Andes – proxies for changes in uplift and denudation rates” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Hilmar von Eynatten and Prof. Dr. Gerhard Wörner, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen).

2008-2011: PhD student Thomas Næraa. Thesis title: „From source to sink – benchmarking the detrital input from crystalline sources into off-shore basins using zirconology” (main supervisor in collaboration Dr. Anders Schersten, Lund University and Prof. Dr. Minik Rosing, Copenhagen University).

2008-2011: PhD student Maiken Hansen Klünder. Thesis title: „Trace element distribution in bivalve shells and their potential as paleoproxies” (main supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Adrian Immenhauser, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, and Prof. Dr. Anton Eisenhauer, GEOMAR Kiel).

2007-2010: PhD student Daniel Hennig. Thesis title: „Geochemical and geochronological investigations on the genesis of volcanic massive sulfide deposits of Dapingzhan, Yunnan, China“ (main supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Bernd Lehmann, Technische Universität Clausthal-Zellerfeld).

2007-2010: PhD student Carl Pettersson. Thesis title: „Svalbards Caledonian and pre-Caledonian tectonics and terrane provenance” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Victoria Pease, University of Stockholm).

2008-2009: MSc student Mette Olivarius. Thesis title: „Using detrital zircon U-Pb dating for the stratigraphic correlation of Miocene freshwater reservoirs” (main supervisor, in collaboration with Dr. Christian Knudsen, GEUS).

2008-2009: MSc student Jörn Wotzlaw. Thesis title:„Jurassic to Paleogene tectono-magmatic evolution of northern Chile and adjacent Bolivia from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance.” (co-supervisorin collaboration with Prof. Dr. Hilmar von Eynatten, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen).

2006-2009: PhD student Tamás Mikes. Thesis title: „Paleogene geology and exhumation history of the Dinarides” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Hilmar von Eynatten, Georg-August Universität Göttingen).

2006-2009: PhD student Guido Meinhold. Thesis title: „Sedimentary rocks of the internal Hellenides, Greece: age, source and depositional setting” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Thomas Reischmann, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz).

2006-2009: PhD student Nina Cornelius. Thesis title: „Ultra-high pressure metamorphism in the eastern Rhodopes, Greece” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Thomas Reischmann, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz).

2006: MSc student Taus Jørgensen. Thesis title: „LA-ICP-MS study of the PGE distribution in minerals from the Skærgaard Intrusion, East Greenland” (co-supervisor in collaboration with Dr. Stefan Bernstein and Dr. Tod Waight, University of Copenhagen).

2003-2004: MSc student Mads Sylvest Christiansen. Thesis Title: „Ilmenite chemistry – compositional variations in primary ilmenite related to host rock lithology” (main supervisor).

2003-2004: MSc student Panuna Egede. Thesis Title: „Using otolith chemistry for the discrimination of West Greenland cod populations” (co-supervisor with Prof. Dr. Niels Vestergaard, University of Southern Denmark Odense).

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